Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2017)                   J Environ Health Sustain Dev 2017, 2(4): 374-378 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Lorzadeh E, Salehi-Abargouei A. How nutrition might modify the possible effects of air pollution on cardiovascular diseases risk?. J Environ Health Sustain Dev. 2017; 2 (4) :374-378
URL: http://jehsd.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-89-en.html
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
Full-Text [PDF 455 kb]   (93 Downloads)     |   Abstract (HTML)  (370 Views)
Full-Text:   (184 Views)
How Nutrition might Modify the Possible Effects of Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Diseases' Risk?
 
Elnaz Lorzadeh 1, 2, Amin Salehi-Abargouei 1, 2*
 
1 Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
2 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
A R T I C L E  I N F O
LETTER TO EDITOR  
*Corresponding Author:
Amin Salehi-Abargouei
Email:
abargouei@ssu.ac.ir
Tel:
+983531492229
 
Article History:
Received: 27 August 2017
Accepted: 20 November 2017
Citation: Lorzadeh E, Salehi-Abargouei A. How Nutrition might Modify the Possible Effects of Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Diseases' Risk?. J Environ Health Sustain Dev. 2017; 2(4): 374-8.
Air pollution is a heterogeneous and complex mixture of gases, liquids, and particulate matters. Over the last decade, however, a growing body of epidemiological and clinical evidence has led to a heightened concern about the potential deleterious effects of ambient air pollution on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Recent evidences from the World Health Organization (WHO) revealed that China and India are two of the most affected countries in terms of indoor and outdoor air pollution exposures with approximately 6.5 million associated deaths each year 1. The health effects of pollutant exposure not only pose a problem for the individual, but also contribute to the global burden of disease 2.
Several environmental air pollutants including carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, ozone, lead, and particulate matter 3
are associated with increased hospitalization 4.
It is proposed that even brief exposures to
air pollution can be associated with increase
in cardiovascular mortality 5, 6, particularly in susceptible populations 7. In particular, PM was associated with CVDs mortality, development of chronic CVDs conditions, including hypertension and ischemic heart disease, as well as acute events like myocardial infarction 8.  
Circulating nutrients, toxicants, and their metabolites can modulate vascular responses that can either be pro- or anti-atherogenic. One of the key events in the progression of atherosclerosis is endothelial cell dysfunction. It was documented that exposure to PM air pollution can disrupt
the vasculature, resulting in endothelial
cell dysfunction 8. For instance, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)  increase downstream inflammatory responses by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which can up-regulate the transcription of cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1a1) gene 9, 10. Cyp1a1 is primarily involved in xenobiotic detoxification; however, in the presence of certain PCBs, it results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via an uncoupling mechanism 11. This production of ROS yields an increase in oxidative stress because of the imbalance in the cellular redox status 10. This pro-oxidative cellular status contributes to a state of chronic inflammation, which is a hallmark of many diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders 12. More recent evidences suggest that a dioxin-like pollutant exposure, e.g., PCB-126, might up-regulates the enzyme flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 and subsequently increases circulating levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a biomarker strongly associated with CVDs 13.
It is well understood that a nutritious diet, rich in foods containing bioactive components such as polyphenols and anti-inflammatory fatty acids might protect against chronic inflammation, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and CVDs 14. Diets rich in these bioactive food components often contain greater levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds. They consequently have the capacity to attenuate the inflammatory and oxidative properties of pollutant exposure 15- 21, for instance, diets similar to the Mediterranean diet, which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains 22, 23.
On the other hand it is revealed that poor nutrition might increase CVDs risk. For instance, diets containing certain fatty acid profiles might promote the development of CVDs. For example, consumption of pro-inflammatory fatty acids such as linoleic and trans-fatty acids can contribute to endothelial cell dysfunction, a beginning stage of atherosclerosis 24, 25. There is increasing experimental evidence that poor nutrition and pollutant exposure can interact and synergistically increase the risk of CVDs 26.
A number of food items are shown to be protective against CVDs. Curcumin, a principal component of the spice turmeric, has been demonstrated to suppress or inhibit the expression of tumor necrosis factor, as well as cyclooxygenase 2, the target of non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs 27, 28. Additionally, consumption of table grapes that are rich in polyphenolic compounds, including resveratrol and anthocyanins, has been shown to attenuate systemic inflammatory responses, hepatic lipogenesis, and adiposity in mice fed with a high-fat diet 29. Because many of the environmental pollutants are lipophilic and accumulate within the adipose tissue of exposed individuals, examining nutritional means to promote the excretion and reduction of body burden is also an important facet. It has been noted that individuals with a vegetarian or vegan diet tended to have lower amounts of organochloride body burden 30.
As a conclusion, environmental pollutant exposure is associated with numerous health complications ranging from metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes to CVDs 2. While efforts to reduce and remediate pollution are underway, means of immediate protection at an individual level is of upmost importance 1. Nutrition can
have a drastic impact on the development of or protection against non-communicable diseases, such as those associated with pollutant exposure 1. Western diets, abundant in processed foods, caloric content, and pro-inflammatory fatty acids may contribute to the development of obesity and cardiovascular diseases, they might also enhance the pollutant toxicity. Conversely, diets rich in bioactive food components, such as polyphenols and omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., the Mediterranean diet) are associated with reduced risk of inflammatory diseases and can attenuate the negative health effects of pollutant exposure 2. Future studies examining the possible interaction between dietary foods or nutrients intakes and air pollutants in association with CVDs development might allow us to understand how certain foods may be used to alter specific epigenetic tags to reduce the risk of pollutant-associated diseases 2.
Acknowledgements
We have to thank the research council of the Nutrition and Food Security Research Center of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences for their financial and scientific support of the authors.
 
This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use.
 
References
  1. Hoffman JB, Hennig B. Protective influence of healthful nutrition on mechanisms of environmental pollutant toxicity and disease risks. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2017 Jun;1398(1):99-107. PubMed PMID: 28574588. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC5503778. Epub 2017/06/03. eng.
  2. Hoffman JB, Petriello MC, Hennig B. Impact of nutrition on pollutant toxicity: an update with new insights into epigenetic regulation. Reviews on environmental health. 2017 Mar 01;32(1-2):65-72. PubMed PMID: 28076319. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC5489226. Epub 2017/01/12. eng.
  3. Brook RD, Franklin B, Cascio W, et al. Air pollution and cardiovascular disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2004 Jun 01;109(21):2655-71. PubMed PMID: 15173049. Epub 2004/06/03. eng.
  4. Poloniecki JD, Atkinson RW, de Leon AP, et al. Daily time series for cardiovascular hospital admissions and previous day's air pollution in London, UK. Occupational and environmental medicine. 1997 Aug; 54(8): 535-40. PubMed PMID: 9326156. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC1128977. Epub 1997/08/01. eng.
  5. Peters A, Dockery DW, Muller JE, et al. Increased particulate air pollution and the triggering of myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2001 Jun 12;103(23):2810-5. PubMed PMID: 11401937. Epub 2001/06/13. eng.
  6. Samet JM, Dominici F, Curriero FC, et al. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S. cities, 1987-1994. The New England journal of medicine. 2000 Dec 14; 343(24): 1742-9. PubMed PMID: 11114312. Epub 2000/12/15. eng.
  7. Shah AS, Langrish JP, Nair H, et al. Global association of air pollution and heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet (London, England). 2013 Sep 21; 382
    (9897): 1039-48. PubMed PMID: 23849322. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3809511. Epub 2013/07/16. eng.
  8. Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope CA, et al. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010 Jun 01; 121(21): 2331-78. PubMed PMID: 20458016. Epub 2010/05/12. eng.
  9. Lim EJ, Majkova Z, Xu S, et al. Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl-induced CYP1A1 is regulated through caveolae signaling in
    vascular endothelial cells. Chemico-biological interactions. 2008 Nov 25;176(2-3):71-8. PubMed PMID: 18786521. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC2603293. Epub 2008/09/13. eng.
  10. Majkova Z, Smart E, Toborek M, et al. Up-regulation of endothelial monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by coplanar PCB77 is caveolin-1-dependent. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2009 May 15;237(1):1-7. PubMed PMID: 19265715. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC2680936. Epub 2009/03/07. eng.
  11. Schlezinger JJ, Struntz WD, Goldstone JV, et al. Uncoupling of cytochrome P450 1A and stimulation of reactive oxygen species production by co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2006 May 25; 77(4): 422-32. PubMed PMID: 16500718. Epub 2006/ 02/ 28. eng.
  12. Kuehn BM. Environmental pollutants tied to atherosclerosis. Jama. 2011 Nov 16; 306(19): 2081. PubMed PMID: 22089709. Epub 2011/ 11/ 18. eng.
  13. Petriello MC, Hoffman JB, Sunkara M, et al. Dioxin-like pollutants increase hepatic flavin containing monooxygenase (FMO3) expression to promote synthesis of the pro-atherogenic nutrient biomarker trimethylamine N-oxide from dietary precursors. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. 2016 Jul; 33: 145-53. PubMed PMID: 27155921. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC 4893916. Epub 2016/05/09. eng.
  14. Chiuve SE, Sampson L, Willett WC. The association between a nutritional quality index and risk of chronic disease. American journal of preventive medicine. 2011 May; 40(5): 505-13. PubMed PMID: 21496749. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3100735. Epub 2011/04/19. eng.
  15. Majkova Z, Layne J, Sunkara M, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2011 Feb 15; 251(1): 41-9. PubMed PMID: 21130106. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3026064. Epub 2010/12/07. eng.
  16. Newsome BJ, Petriello MC, Han SG, et al. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. 2014 Feb;25(2): 126-35. PubMed PMID: 24378064. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3946959. Epub 2014/01/01. eng.
  17. Petriello MC, Newsome BJ, Dziubla TD, et al. Modulation of persistent organic pollutant toxicity through nutritional intervention: emerging opportunities in biomedicine and environmental remediation. The Science of the total environment. 2014 Sep 01;491-492:11-6. PubMed PMID: 24530186. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4077968. Epub 2014/02/18. eng.
  18. Romieu I, Garcia-Esteban R, Sunyer J, et al. The effect of supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on markers of oxidative stress in elderly exposed to PM(2.5). Environmental health perspectives. 2008 Sep;116(9):1237-42. PubMed PMID: 18795169. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC2535628. Epub 2008/09/17. eng.
  19. Slim R, Toborek M, Robertson LW, et al. Antioxidant protection against PCB-mediated endothelial cell activation. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 1999 Dec;52(2):232-9. PubMed PMID: 10630576. Epub 2000/01/12. eng.
  20. Sun TL, Liu Z, Qi ZJ, et al. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) attenuates arsenic-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2016 Jul;93:102-10. PubMed PMID: 27170490. Epub 2016/05/14. eng.
  21. Tong H, Rappold AG, Diaz-Sanchez D, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation appears to attenuate particulate air pollution-induced cardiac effects and lipid changes in healthy middle-aged adults. Environmental health perspectives. 2012 Jul; 120(7): 952-7. PubMed PMID: 22514211. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3404661. Epub 2012/04/20. eng.
  22. Sofi F, Cesari F, Abbate R, et al. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: meta-analysis. BMJ (Clinical research ed). 2008 Sep 11;337:a1344. PubMed PMID: 18786971. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC2533524. Epub 2008/09/13. eng.
  23. Sofi F, Macchi C, Abbate R, et al. Mediterranean diet and health status: an updated meta-analysis and a proposal for a literature-based adherence score. Public health nutrition. 2014 Dec;17(12):2769-82. PubMed PMID: 24476641. Epub 2014/01/31. eng.
  24. Baum SJ, Kris-Etherton PM, Willett WC, et al. Fatty acids in cardiovascular health and disease: a comprehensive update. Journal of clinical lipidology. 2012 May-Jun;6(3):216-34. PubMed PMID: 22658146. Epub 2012/06/05. eng.
  25. Kuipers RS, de Graaf DJ, Luxwolda MF, et al. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease. The Netherlands journal of medicine. 2011 Sep; 69(9): 372-8. PubMed PMID: 21978979. Epub 2011/10/08. eng.
  26. Petriello MC, Newsome B, Hennig B. Influence of nutrition in PCB-induced vascular inflammation. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2014 May; 21(10): 6410-8. PubMed PMID: 23417440. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3686851. Epub 2013/02/19. eng.
  27. Aggarwal S, Ichikawa H, Takada Y, et al. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) down-regulates expression of cell proliferation and antiapoptotic and metastatic gene products through suppression of IkappaBalpha kinase and Akt activation. Molecular pharmacology. 2006 Jan;69(1):195-206. PubMed PMID: 16219905. Epub 2005/ 10/ 13. eng.
  28. Lev-Ari S, Maimon Y, Strier L, et al. Down-regulation of prostaglandin E2 by curcumin is correlated with inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cell lines. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. 2006 Winter; 4(1):21-6. PubMed PMID: 16737669. Epub 2006/06/02. eng.
  29. Baldwin J, Collins B, Wolf PG, et al. Table grape consumption reduces adiposity and markers of hepatic lipogenesis and alters gut microbiota in butter fat-fed mice. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. 2016 Jan; 27: 123-35. PubMed PMID: 26423887. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4933288. Epub 2015/10/02. eng.
  30. Arguin H, Sanchez M, Bray GA, et al. Impact of adopting a vegan diet or an olestra supplementation on plasma organochlorine concentrations: results from two pilot studies. The British journal of nutrition. 2010 May;103(10):1433-41. PubMed PMID: 20030906. Epub 2009/12/25. eng.

 
 
Type of Study: Letter to Editor | Subject: Special
Received: 2017/08/27 | Accepted: 2017/11/20 | Published: 2017/12/19

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Environmental Health and Sustainable Development

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb