Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2019)                   J Environ Health Sustain Dev 2019, 4(2): 727-728 | Back to browse issues page


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Khatebasreh M, Gholami M. Water Transfer, A Solution for Water Shortage?. J Environ Health Sustain Dev. 2019; 4 (2) :727-728
URL: http://jehsd.ssu.ac.ir/article-1-171-en.html
Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
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Water Transfer, A Solution for Water Shortage?
 
Masoumeh Khatebasreh 1, 2, Maryam Gholami 1, 2*
 
1 Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
2 Student Research committee, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
 
A R T I C L E  I N F O    
LETTER TO EDITOR    
*Corresponding Author:
Maryam Gholami
Email:
gholami313114@gmail.com
Tel:
+989171262204
 
Article History:
Received: 14 March 2019
Accepted: 20 May 2019  
 
 
Citation: Khatebasreh M, Gholami M. Water Transfer, A Solution for Water Shortage?. J Environ Health Sustain Dev. 2019; 4(2): 727-8.
 
 
Managers of water resources are faced with challenges with regard to the growing threat of undesirable water demand and the growing need for sustainable economic social development of water-deficient areas 1, 2.
Inter-basin water transfer (IBWT) project is a beneficial engineering counteraction to diminish the water shortage problems in water-deficient areas. Moreover, IBWT balances the uneven distribution of water resources by artificially re-allocating the water resources 2. Various large-scale inter-basin water transfer projects were implemented; for instance, the North American Water and Power Alliance 2, the Canadian James Bay Project 3, the Lake Chenghai water diversion projects, 4 and the Chinese South-to-North Water Transfer Project (SNWT) 5,6. They transferred part of the water from water-abundant basins to water-deficient basins, in 20 countries and regions including the USA, Canada, the former Soviet :union:, India, Pakistan, China, etc.3. All of these 160 projects allocated over 80 percent of the total water transfer quantity 3.
In Iran, some water transfer projects were also implemented; Kuhrang Tunnel, Cheshmeh-Langan, Goukan Tunnel, Beheshtabad Tunnel, and Zayandeh-Rud River Basin.
According to the International Commission on Irrigation and Dams, about 14 percent of the global water withdrawal is supplied  by inter-basin water transfer projects; this portion is expected to rise to 25 percent by 2025 7. The implementation of these inter-basin water transfer projects affects environmental and socio-economic systems and causes widespread concern in society (both the donor and receiving). So, it is very important to determine the potential impacts of inter-basin water transfer projects 3.
In this regard, many problems are attributed to the planning phase of these projects. Lack of comprehensive environmental impact assessments and lack of proportionality between environmental assessments and other aspects of IWT planning, such as the economic and technical studies have led to submission of environmental impact assessments to the technical and economic aspects of IWTs 8. To determine the impacts of IWT projects on optimal water resource allocation, a comprehensive water resources management model was proposed, which incorporated water demand projection, multi-objective water resource allocation model and evaluation criteria and process-based hydrodynamic ecological model in order to simulate the flow diversions' effects on water quality in reservoir 3.
The study conclusions include:
Water transfer projects play an important role in enhancing the economic and social aspects in regions that receive water. All inter-basin water transfer systems can have complex implications, such as negative long-term social, economic, and environmental effects that raise concerns about water scarcity. Due to the human demand for water resources, the need for additional water supply has increased dramatically in water-deficient regions. In addition, it has created a contradiction between water supply and demand. So, water-using sectors started a competition that has become increasingly serious with regard to the water resources 7. Although the IBWT projects have helped to reduce the intensity of water shortage in the water-deficient areas, no integrated approach has been implemented to manage these projects in Iran.
 
This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work for commercial use.
 
References
  1. Matete M, Hassan R. Integrated ecological economics accounting approach to evaluation of inter-basin water transfers: An application to the lesotho highlands water project. Ecological Economics. 2006;60(1):246-59.
  2. Wang Y, Zhang W, Zhao Y, et al. Modelling water quality and quantity with the influence of inter-basin water diversion projects and cascade reservoirs in the Middle-lower Hanjiang River. J Hydrol. 2016;541:1348-62.
  3. Zhuang W. Eco-environmental impact of inter-basin water transfer projects: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016; 23(13): 12867-79.
  4. Zou R, Zhang X, Liu Y, et al. Uncertainty-based analysis on water quality response to water diversions for Lake Chenghai: A multiple-pattern inverse modeling approach. J Hydrol. 2014;514: 1-14.
  5. Yan B, Chen L. Coincidence probability of precipitation for the middle route of South-to-North water transfer project in China. J Hydrol. 2013;499:19-26.
  6. Li Y, Tang C, Wang C, et al. Assessing and modeling impacts of different inter-basin water transfer routes on Lake Taihu and the Yangtze River, China. Ecol Eng. 2013; 60: 399-413.
  7. Gohari A, Eslamian S, Mirchi A, et al. Water transfer as a solution to water shortage: a fix that can backfire. J Hydrol. 2013;491:23-39.
  8. Snaddon C, Davies B, Wishart M, et al.
    A global overview of inter-basin water
    transfer schemes, with an appraisal of their ecological, socio-economic and socio-political implications, and recommendations for their management. Water Research Commission Report No TT120/00 Pretoria: Water Research Commission. 1999.

 
Type of Study: Letters to editor | Subject: Special
Received: 2019/03/14 | Accepted: 2019/05/20 | Published: 2019/06/12

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